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HomeHealth Parkinson's Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, And More

 Parkinson’s Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, And More

What Is Parkinson’s Disease? 

A degenerative ailment that primarily manifests in the neurological system and the bodily systems that it regulates, Parkinson’s disease progressively worsens over time. Early signs appear gradually. Initially, you may detect a slight tremor in one hand. Although tremors are characteristic of this illness, they may also lead to inflexibility and a general slowing of movement.

Parkinson’s disease causes a loss of facial expression in its early stages. You are not permitted to stroll with your arms swinging. You could start stuttering or having trouble pronouncing words. The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease tend to worsen with time.

Although there is currently no cure for Parkinson’s, drugs may help you manage your symptoms. Your doctor may recommend brain surgery to help control your symptoms and improve your condition. Here are Parkinson’s disease causes, symptoms and more.

Parkinson’s Disease: What Are The Causes?

When nerve cells in the basal ganglia, a region of the brain responsible for movement, are damaged or die, the illness manifests itself in various ways, the most noticeable of which are the classic symptoms of Parkinson’s. An essential substance in the brain called dopamine is usually produced by these nerve cells or neurons. Because of a decrease in dopamine production due to neuronal death or impairment, patients with Parkinson’s disease often have difficulties moving about. However, the exact reason for neuronal death is still a mystery to scientists.

Norepinephrine is the primary chemical messenger of the sympathetic nervous system, which regulates numerous bodily processes like heart rate and blood pressure, and is also lost in people with Parkinson’s disease. Some of the non-movement symptoms of Parkinson’s, such as weariness, fluctuating blood pressure, slow digestion, and a dramatic drop in blood pressure when the patient rises from a sitting or laying posture, may be attributable to a lack of norepinephrine.

Lewy bodies, which are odd aggregates of the protein alpha-synuclein, are seen in many brain cells of persons with Parkinson’s disease. Researchers are examining the role of genetic alterations in Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body dementia to learn more about alpha-synuclein’s normal and aberrant roles.

Parkinson’s Disease: What Are The Symptoms?

Loss of muscular control is one of the most recognizable signs of Parkinson’s disease. However, modern knowledge suggests that problems with muscular control aren’t exclusive to Parkinson’s disease. Here are few parkinson’s disease symptoms,

  • Discomfort In The Muscles

The movement-related symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are referred to as motor symptoms and include:

  • Sluggish Motions (Bradykinesia)

Having this symptom is essential for a Parkinson’s disease diagnosis. In addition, patients report feeling weak in the affected muscles, although this is due to issues with muscular control rather than an actual loss of strength.

  • Stiffness Or Rigidity

Parkinson’s disease is characterized by rigidity and stiffness, such as that of a lead pipe or a cogwheel. Lead-pipe rigidity refers to an immovable, unvarying resistance to the motion of a physical component. When tremor and lead-pipe stiffness are combined, the resulting stiffness is like that of a cogwheel. The term comes from the abrupt beginnings and stops of the motions (think of it as the second hand on a mechanical clock).

Extra motor signs may include:

  • Reduced Frequency Of Blinking

Reduced ability to regulate facial muscles also manifests itself in this way.

  • Drooling.

One other sign comes from the weakening of the facial muscles.

Having less control over your throat muscles causes this. It’s more likely to cause issues like pneumonia and choking.

  • Hypophonia

The loss of muscular control in the chest and throat causes this.

Indicators Other Than Muscle Movement

Non-motor symptoms are also possible. Professionals previously held that the presence of non-motor symptoms before motor symptoms was an indicator of this illness. The earlier these symptoms show in the course of the illness, however, is a hypothesis increasingly being supported by research. As a result, these signs and symptoms may serve as early warning indicators that appear years or even decades before motor symptoms.

Parkinson’s Disease: What Are The Treatments Available?

Although there is currently no cure for Parkinson’s disease, its symptoms may be treated in various ways. The effectiveness of medications and how they are administered might also differ from patient to patient. Nevertheless, the standard method of treatment for this illness is the use of medication.

Surgery, including the implantation of a device that emits a modest electrical current and stimulates a specific brain region, is a secondary therapy option (this is known as deep brain stimulation). Some persons with Parkinson’s disease can access experimental treatments, including stem cell-based therapies. However, access to these therapies varies widely.

What Kinds Of Drugs And Therapy Are Employed?

There are two types of medication used to treat Parkinson’s disease: target the illness itself and treat the disease’s symptoms. Those with Parkinson’s may find some relief from medicines that go straight after the disease. Parkinson’s disease treatment addresses just a subset of the symptoms caused by the condition.


The medications used to treat Parkinson’s disease accomplish their goals in various ways. Drugs that do any of the following are, therefore very likely:

  • By Administering Dopamine

A medication like levodopa may boost your brain’s natural supply of dopamine. However, when this drug fails to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, it is mainly because of another kind of parkinsonism. Over time, levodopa’s effectiveness declines due to adverse effects experienced by patients using the drug regularly.

  • Dopamine Mimicking

Drugs with a dopamine-like action are called dopamine agonists. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that regulates cell behavior when it attaches to a target cell. Dopamine agonists bind to receptors on cells and prompt them to replicate in a particular manner. In younger individuals, these are more prevalent reasons for delaying levodopa treatment.

  • Agents That Prevent Dopamine From Being Metabolized

Neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, are degraded by the body’s inherent mechanisms. Dopamine-boosting drugs prevent the brain from reusing the chemical customarily broken down by the body. When used with levodopa, they may be beneficial even in the latter stages of Parkinson’s disease.

Wrapping Up

The reason for optimism among those living with Parkinson’s is because of the discoveries made possible by the research funded by the Parkinson’s Foundation. As more is learned about Parkinson’s disease, the study of it continues and develops.



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